Drug Dictionary

This is a growing list of the many drugs identified by Toronto’s Drug Checking Service, each with a brief description and indication of whether the drug has been classified as noteworthy.

Drug name
Description
2C class drugs
A family of psychedelic drugs with varying potencies.
4-Fluorobutyryl fentanyl (4-FBF)/ 4-fluoroisobutyr fentanyl
A fentanyl-related drug, considered to be stronger than heroin but not as strong as fentanyl. We generally find fentanyl-related drugs unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found 4-fluorobutyryl fentanyl (4-FBF)/4-fluoroisobutyr fentanyl on November 28, 2022.
4'-Hydroxy nitazene
A synthetic “nitazene” opioid, considered to be roughly as strong as heroin. We generally find nitazene opioids unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found 4'-hydroxy nitazene on September 20, 2021.
5-Aminoisotonitazene
A synthetic "nitazene" opioid, considered to be roughly as strong as morphine. We generally find nitazene opioids unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found 5-aminoisotonitazene on May 17, 2021.
6-MAM
A heroin-related drug that is not considered to be as strong as heroin but with effects setting in more rapidly.
AB-FUBINACA
A synthetic cannabinoid, manufactured to be like the main psychoactive component in cannabis, THC, considered to be ultrapotent. We generally find synthetic cannabinoids unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found AB-FUBINACA on November 2, 2020. Using high-potency opioids in combination with synthetic cannabinoids increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Acetyl fentanyl
A fentanyl-related drug, considered to be stronger than heroin but not as strong as fentanyl. We generally find fentanyl-related drugs unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found acetyl fentanyl on December 11, 2019.
ACHMINACA
A synthetic cannabinoid, manufactured to be like the main psychoactive component in cannabis, THC, considered to be ultrapotent. We generally find synthetic cannabinoids unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found ACHMINACA on May 20, 2020. Using high-potency opioids in combination with synthetic cannabinoids increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Adinazolam
A short-acting benzodiazepine-related drug used to treat anxiety and control seizures. Sometimes benzodiazepines are expected (i.e., submitted to be checked), but we often find them unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found adinazolam on January 27, 2021. Using high-potency opioids in combination with benzodiazepine-related drugs increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Alprazolam (Xanax)
A high-potency, short-acting benzodiazepine used to treat anxiety. Sometimes benzodiazepines are expected (i.e., submitted to be checked), but we often find them unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We have found alprazolam (Xanax) since we launched in October 2019. Using high-potency opioids in combination with benzodiazepine-related drugs increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
AMB-FUBINACA
A synthetic cannabinoid, manufactured to be like the main psychoactive component in cannabis, THC, considered to be ultrapotent. We generally find synthetic cannabinoids unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found AMB-FUBINACA on November 6, 2019. Using high-potency opioids in combination with synthetic cannabinoids increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Benzocaine
A local anesthetic (numbing medication) used to relieve pain that can reduce the amount of oxygen carried by a person's blood throughout their body. We generally find benzocaine unexpectedly in cocaine and fentanyl samples.
Bromazolam
A high-potency, short-acting benzodiazepine-related drug, similar to alprazolam (Xanax). Sometimes benzodiazepines are expected (i.e., submitted to be checked), but we often find them unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found bromazolam on April 19, 2021. Using high-potency opioids in combination with benzodiazepine-related drugs increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Bromofentanyl
A fentanyl-related drug, considered to be stronger than morphine but not as strong as heroin. We generally find fentanyl-related drugs unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found bromofentanyl on August 26, 2021.
Butyryl fentanyl/isobutyryl fentanyl
Fentanyl-related drugs, considered to be stronger than morphine but not as strong as fentanyl. We generally find fentanyl-related drugs unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found butyryl fentanyl/isobutyryl fentanyl on September 18, 2020. Note that we report these drugs together because they have very similar chemical structures, and we cannot currently differentiate between them.
Carfentanil
An ultrapotent fentanyl-related drug, considered to be up to 100 times stronger than fentanyl, 4,000 times stronger than heroin, and 10,000 times stronger than morphine. We generally find carfentanil unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We have found carfentanil since we launched in October 2019. Using high-potency opioids in combination increases the risk of overdose and greater than normal doses of naloxone may be required to rouse individuals experiencing an overdose.
Clonazepam
A high-potency, long-acting benzodiazepine used to prevent and control seizures and treat panic attacks. Sometimes benzodiazepines are expected (i.e., submitted to be checked), but we often find them unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found clonazepam on July 13, 2020. Using high-potency opioids in combination with benzodiazepine-related drugs increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Desalkylgidazepam
An active benzodiazepine-related drug used in some countries to treat anxiety and insomnia with little known about its strength or the duration of its effects. Sometimes benzodiazepines are expected (i.e., submitted to be checked), but we often find them unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found desalkylgidazepam on October 18, 2022. Using high-potency opioids in combination with benzodiazepine-related drugs increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Deschloroetizolam
A benzodiazepine-related drug, structurally similar to etizolam, although half as strong and lasting twice as long. Sometimes benzodiazepines are expected (i.e., submitted to be checked), but we often find them unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found deschloroetizolam on November 10, 2020. Using high-potency opioids in combination with benzodiazepine-related drugs increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Despropionyl carfentanil
An inactive carfentanil-related drug, which is an impurity found in carfentanil preparations.
Despropionyl fentanyl (4-ANPP)
An inactive fentanyl-related drug, which is an impurity found in fentanyl preparations.
Dextromethorphan
A medication used to relieve cough caused by the common cold or flu.
Diazepam (Valium)
A low-potency, long-acting benzodiazepine used to treat anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and seizures. Sometimes benzodiazepines are expected (i.e., submitted to be checked), but we often find them unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found diazepam (Valium) on January 19, 2021. Using high-potency opioids in combination with benzodiazepine-related drugs increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Etizolam
A short-acting benzodiazepine-related drug, used in some countries to treat anxiety and insomnia. Sometimes benzodiazepines are expected (i.e., submitted to be checked), but we often find them unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We have found etizolam since we launched in October 2019. Using high-potency opioids in combination with benzodiazepine-related drugs increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Etodesnitazene
A synthetic "nitazene" opioid, considered to be stronger than morphine but not as strong as fentanyl. We generally find nitazene opioids unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found etodesnitazene on June 24, 2021.
Etonitazene
A high-potency synthetic "nitazene" opioid, considered to be more than 20 times stronger than fentanyl. We generally find nitazene opioids unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found etonitazene on May 5, 2021. Using high-potency opioids in combination increases the risk of overdose and greater than normal doses of naloxone may be required to rouse individuals experiencing an overdose.
Etonitazepyne
Also known as N-pyrrolidino etonitazene, a high-potency synthetic "nitazene" opioid, considered to be more than 20 times stronger than fentanyl. We generally find nitazene opioids unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found etonitazepyne on July 13, 2021. Using high-potency opioids in combination increases the risk of overdose and greater than normal doses of naloxone may be required to rouse individuals experiencing an overdose.
Fentanyl
A high-potency synthetic opioid, considered to be up to 40 times stronger than heroin and 100 times stronger than morphine. Fentanyl is the opioid of choice (i.e., expected) for many people who use opioids. We sometimes find fentanyl unexpectedly in other opioid samples, like heroin or Percocet. We VERY rarely find fentanyl in other drug types, like stimulants, psychedelics, or depressants.
Flualprazolam
A high-potency, short-acting benzodiazepine-related drug, similar to alprazolam (Xanax). Sometimes benzodiazepines are expected (i.e., submitted to be checked), but we often find them unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found flualprazolam on November 12, 2019. Using high-potency opioids in combination with benzodiazepine-related drugs increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Flubromazepam
A high-potency, long-acting benzodiazepine-related drug. Sometimes benzodiazepines are expected (i.e., submitted to be checked), but we often find them unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found flubromazepam on May 13, 2021. Using high-potency opioids in combination with benzodiazepine-related drugs increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Flubromazolam
A high-potency, long-acting benzodiazepine-related drug. Sometimes benzodiazepines are expected (i.e., submitted to be checked), but we often find them unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found flubromazolam on November 7, 2019. Using high-potency opioids in combination with benzodiazepine-related drugs increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Fluorofentanyl
A family of high-potency fentanyl-related drugs (para-, ortho-, and meta-), considered to be up to 2 times stronger than fentanyl. We generally find fentanyl-related drugs unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found fluorofentanyl on September 23, 2020. Using high-potency opioids in combination increases the risk of overdose and greater than normal doses of naloxone may be required to rouse individuals experiencing an overdose.
Flurazepam (Dalmane)
A low-potency, long-acting benzodiazepine used to treat insomnia. Sometimes benzodiazepines are expected (i.e., submitted to be checked), but we often find them unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found flurazepam (Dalmane) on April 13, 2021. Using high-potency opioids in combination with benzodiazepine-related drugs increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Furanyl UF-17
An opioid-related drug with unknown strength and effects. We generally find furanyl UF-17 unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found furanyl UF-17 on November 6, 2019.
Furanylethyl fentanyl
An active fentanyl-related drug. We generally find fentanyl-related drugs unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found furanylethyl fentanyl on June 26, 2020.
Isotonitazene/ protonitazene
High-potency synthetic "nitazene" opioids, considered to be up to 8 times stronger than fentanyl. We generally find nitazene opioids unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found isotonitazene/protonitazene on February 12, 2021. We report these drugs together because they have very similar chemical structures, and we cannot currently differentiate between them. Using high-potency opioids in combination increases the risk of overdose and greater than normal doses of naloxone may be required to rouse individuals experiencing an overdose.
Isotonitazepyne/ protonitazepyne
Also known as N-pyrrolidino isotonitazene and N-pyrrolidino protonitazene, high-potency “nitazene” opioids, considered to be more than 20 times stronger than fentanyl. We generally find nitazene opioids unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found isotonitazepyne/protonitazepyne on March 6, 2024. We report these drugs together because they have very similar chemical structures, and we cannot currently differentiate between them. Using high-potency opioids in combination increases the risk of overdose and greater than normal doses of naloxone may be required to rouse individuals experiencing an overdose.
Levamisole
A medication used to treat worm infections in animals, pulled from the Canadian market in the early 2000s, that has been associated with skin sores and a reduction of infection-fighting white blood cells. We generally find levamisole unexpectedly in cocaine or crack cocaine samples.
Lorazepam (Ativan)
A high-potency, short-acting benzodiazepine used to treat anxiety. Sometimes benzodiazepines are expected (i.e., submitted to be checked), but we often find them unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found lorazepam (Ativan) on October 14, 2020. Using high-potency opioids in combination with benzodiazepine-related drugs increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
MBDB
A MDMA-related drug believed to have similar effects to MDMA, but milder.
MDA
An amphetamine-related drug known to have similar effects to MDMA, but self-reported data suggests the effects of MDA last longer and it is believed to have slightly more psychedelic properties.
MDDMA
An MDMA-related drug believed to have similar effects to MDMA, but milder.
MDEA
A MDMA-related drug believed to have similar effects to MDMA, but milder.
Meclonazepam
A benzodiazepine used to treat parasitic worms. Sometimes benzodiazepines are expected (i.e., submitted to be checked), but we often find them unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found meclonazepam on January 23, 2020. Using high-potency opioids in combination with benzodiazepine-related drugs increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Medetomidine
A veterinary tranquilizer approved only for use on animals. We generally find medetomidine unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found medetomidine on December 29, 2023. Using high-potency opioids in combination with medetomidine increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Methylfentanyl-related
A family of over 14 high-potency fentanyl-related drugs, with most considered to be roughly as strong as or up to 10 times stronger than fentanyl. We generally find methylfentanyl-related drugs unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found a methylfentanyl-related drug on August 13, 2020. Note that we report these drugs together because they have very similar chemical structures, and we cannot currently differentiate between them. Using high-potency opioids in combination increases the risk of overdose and greater than normal doses of naloxone may be required to rouse individuals experiencing an overdose.
Methylone (MDMC or bk-MDMA)
An amphetamine-like drug believed to have similar effects to MDMA, but milder.
Metonitazene
A high-potency synthetic "nitazene" opioid, considered to be roughly as strong as fentanyl. We generally find nitazene opioids unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found metonitazene on May 31, 2021. Using high-potency opioids in combination increases the risk of overdose and greater than normal doses of naloxone may be required to rouse individuals experiencing an overdose.
N-Desethyl etonitazene
A high-potency synthetic “nitazene” opioid, considered to be up to 10 times stronger than fentanyl. We generally find nitazene opioids unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found N-desethyl etonitazene on February 22, 2024. Using high-potency opioids in combination increases the risk of overdose and greater than normal doses of naloxone may be required to rouse individuals experiencing an overdose.
N-Desethyl isotonitazene/N-desethyl protonitazene
High-potency “nitazene” opioids, considered to be more than 20 times stronger than fentanyl. We generally find nitazene opioids unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found N-desethyl isotonitazene/N-desethyl protonitazene on February 3, 2022. We report these drugs together because they have very similar chemical structures, and we cannot currently differentiate between them. Using high-potency opioids in combination increases the risk of overdose and greater than normal doses of naloxone may be required to rouse individuals experiencing an overdose.
N-Methyl norcarfentanil
A carfentanil-related drug, considered to be roughly as strong as morphine. We generally find carfentanil-related drugs unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found N-methyl norcarfentanil on January 9, 2023.
Ocfentanil
A high-potency fentanyl-related drug, considered to be up to 3 times stronger than fentanyl. We generally find fentanyl-related drugs unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found ocfentanil on December 20, 2022. Using high-potency opioids in combination increases the risk of overdose and greater than normal doses of naloxone may be required to rouse individuals experiencing an overdose.
Phenacetin
A pain-relieving, fever-reducing medication, pulled from the Canadian market in the 1970s for its association with kidney and bladder cancers. We generally find phenacetin unexpectedly in cocaine, crack cocaine, or fentanyl samples.
Primidone
A long-acting barbiturate, similar to phenobarbital, used to treat seizures. We generally find primidone unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found primidone on November 3, 2023. Using high-potency opioids in combination with barbiturates increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Temazepam
A low-potency, short-acting benzodiazepine used to treat insomnia. Sometimes benzodiazepines are expected (i.e., submitted to be checked), but we often find them unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found temazepam on March 19, 2021. Using high-potency opioids in combination with benzodiazepine-related drugs increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
Valeryl fentanyl
A fentanyl-related drug, considered to be stronger than morphine but not as strong as fentanyl. We generally find fentanyl-related drugs unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found valeryl fentanyl on July 31, 2020.
Xylazine
A veterinary tranquilizer used on animals for sedation, muscle relaxation, and pain relief. We generally find xylazine unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found xylazine on September 22, 2020. Using high-potency opioids in combination with xylazine increases the risk of dangerous suppression of vitals (e.g., slowing down of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate).
β-Hydroxy fentanyl
A fentanyl-related drug, considered to be stronger than fentanyl. We generally find fentanyl-related drugs unexpectedly in fentanyl samples. We first found β-hydroxy fentanyl on May 17, 2023. Using high-potency opioids in combination increases the risk of overdose and greater than normal doses of naloxone may be required to rouse individuals experiencing an overdose.

Noteworthy drug: “Noteworthy drugs” are drugs that (i) are linked to overdose or other adverse effects, (ii) are highly potent or related to highly potent drugs, or (iii) may not be desired by some service users. Noteworthy drugs are flagged when they are unexpectedly found in checked samples.